hiv/aids symptoms, causes, blood test and treatment

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What is the HIV?

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 or HIV-2. Initial primary infection over a period of time becomes chronic & persistent and may lead to advanced HIV disease if untreated.

When HIV virus entering the body, than virus starts harming those cells which are necessary to protect the body from any kind of infection. Due to this, a person becomes vulnerable to diseases and his immunity is not able to protect him.

what is the AIDS?

AIDS disease is the late stage of HIV infection that occurs when the body’s immune system is badly damaged because of the virus.

When HIV is not recognized in the initial stage it can turn into AIDS in its last stage.

AIDS is a condition when the immune system has been severely damaged. (BLADDER CANCER MARKER TEST)

How to confirm A person with HIV is considered to have progressed to AIDS:

  • The number of their CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3). (In someone with a healthy immune system, CD4 counts are between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.)
  • Normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0 and AIDS patients have reversed ratio of <1.0.
  • they develop one or more opportunistic infections regardless of their CD4 count.

what are the Symptoms of HIV?

Symptoms of Chiv usually begin within one to two months after the virus reaches the body. However, they are difficult to detect in most cases because these symptoms are very similar to those of common viral fever or cough-cold.

If you feel that you have come in contact with unprotected sex or the body blood, semen etc. of an HIV positive person, do not take these symptoms lightly.



  • Fever
  • Sudden vertigo or chills
  • Lymph node inflammation
  • Body ache or twinge
  • Skin Rash
  • Having a headache
  • have a sore throat
  • Vomiting or discomfort
  • Stomach upset
  • Feeling too tired
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • Weight Loss * Pneumonia
  • Frequent Vagina or Pins infection (CA 125 Blood test of ovarian cancer)


How is HIV Transmitted?

Most HIV infections are transmitted through sexual intercourse with an infected partner.

HIV is present in semen, vaginal, cervical secretions and blood. These are the main vehicles which the virus is transmitted.


  • Sexual contact – Heterosexual or Homosexual
  • Transfusion of contaminated blood / blood products
  • Sharing of contaminated needles & syringes among injection drug users
  • Intrapartum / Perinatally from mother to infant
  • Transmission from lactating mother to infant via breast milk
  • Transmission from HIV infected specimens to Health care / Laboratory workers
  • (Occupational risk)


The virus may also be present in urine, tears,saliva, breast milk, CSF and infected discharge.

But these are not vehicles to transmitted HIV.


  • Casual or family contact
  • Insects like mosquitoes
  • Holding hands
  • Sharing drinking or eating utensils
  • Toilet seats
  • Living in a house with HIV infected person

how to diagnose hiv or aids?

There is a 2 to 12 weeks ( 2 weeks to 3 month) interval after infection before antibody becomes detectable in serum.


  • Detection of early HIV infection before seroconversion, especially in high-risk persons.
  • Diagnosis of HIV infection in infants born of seropositve mothers.
  • Monitoring antiviral drug therapy in AIDS.

HIV quantitative RNA TEst

  • In high risk seronegative patients or neonates born to HIV-Seropositive mothers this test is useful to detect HIV infection before antibody production begins.
  • To monitor disease progression
  • For confirm indetermine WB results
  • To difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2

detection of hiv dna and rna by pcr

  • To confirm indeterminate WB results.
  • Detection of HIV infection during latent period (before antibody production begin). The test may be useful for high risk seronegative patients or neonates born to HIV-seropositive months.
  • To monitor antiviral therapy.


cd4 and cd8 counts in hiv

  • In AIDS patients, lymphopenia is largely due to progressive decrease in helper inducer subset (CD4)and increase suppressor of T lymphocytes (CD8).
  • Normal CD4/CD8 ratio is 2.0 AIDS patients have reversed ratio of <1.0.
  • Antiviral therapy is recommended if CD4 count <500/cu mm.
  • prophylaxis against pneumocystis pneumonia is recommended if CD4 count is <200/cu mm.


How be cured HIV in early stage?

There’s no cure for HIV/AIDS, but many different drugs are available to control the virus. HIV treatment is called antiretroviral therapy.

Each class of drug blocks the HIV virus in different ways.

ART is now recommended for everyone.


ART helps protect CD4 cells, keeping the immune system strong enough to fight off disease. Antiretroviral therapy helps keep HIV from progressing to AIDS.


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