Lyme Disease symptoms causes diagnosis and prevention

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What is Lyme Disease?

Lyme Disease symptoms can very but usually involves a skin rash and joint pain (arthritis).

and below we told many more symptoms of Lyme disease (YouTube)

Lyme disease is a bacterial disease spread by blacklegged Ticks.

Lyme disease is caused by bacteria called Borrelia Burgdorferi.

The disease occurs worldwide and throughout the U.S. the states with the highest number of cases are in the Northeast and the upper-mid west United states. (white blood Cells)

Causes of Lyme disease?

People get L. disease through the bite of an infected tick (vactor).

Blacklegged Ticks vactor  of Lyme Disease
Blacklegged Ticks vactor of Lyme Disease

The tick must attach for at least 24 hours to transmit the bacteria.

Immature ticks called Nymphs, are the transmission source of L. disease in humans.

They are much smaller than adult ticks and harder to see.

They most commonly bite during spring and summer.

Adult ticks can also transmit L. disease bacteria.

They are much larger and are more likely to be discovered and removed. Adult ticks most commonly bite during the fall.

Lyme Disease not transmitted.

There is no evidence that Lyme disease is transmitted from person-to-person through touching, kissing, or having sex with a person who has Lyme disease.

Lyme disease acquired during pregnancy may lead to infection of the placenta and possible stillbirth.

Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease is important during pregnancy.

However, no negative effects on the fetus have been found when the mother receives appropriate antibiotic treatment.

There are no reports of L. disease transmission through breast milk or blood transfusion. 

Symptoms of Lyme Disease?

Lyme Disease symptoms start 1 to 2 weeks after infection ( tick bite).

A small re bump may develop at the site of the tick bite, it may slowly spread into a large circular Bulls-Eye type rush.

not all people infected get the rush.

Signs and symptoms of early Lyme disease include: 

Erythema migrans is a reddish or purple colored rash that usually appears 3–14 days after the bite of an infected tick.

Erythema Migrans Rash in Lyme Disease
Erythema Migrans Rash in Lyme Disease

It typically appears at the site of the tick bite, is round or oval, and expands gradually over the course of several days.

Common sites are the thighs, groin, trunk, and armpits. The center of the rash may clear as it enlarges, eventually resulting in a “bull’s-eye” appearance; however, this is not always the case.

The rash may be warm, but it usually is not painful.

Some patients with early Lyme disease do not have or notice any rash and instead just have “flu-like” symptoms of fever, fatigue, and muscle aches. 

Not all rashes that occur at the site of a tick bite are due to Lyme disease.

An allergic reaction to tick saliva can also occur and be confused with an erythema migrans rash.

Allergic reactions to tick saliva usually appear within a few hours after the tick bite, usually do not expand, and disappear within a few days.

Late Lyme Disease Symptoms:

Late Lyme disease: Some signs and symptoms of Lyme disease may not appear until weeks or months after a tick bite: 

Arthritis is most likely to appear as brief bouts of pain and swelling, usually in one or more large joints, especially the knees. 

Lyme Arthritis
Lyme Arthritis

Nervous system symptoms can include numbness, pain, nerve paralysis (often of the facial muscles, usually on one side), and meningitis (fever, stiff neck, and severe headache). 

Rarely, irregularities of the Heart rhythm may occur. 

Lyme Disease Facial Palsy
Lyme Disease Facial Palsy

Problems with memory or concentration, fatigue, headache, and sleep disturbances sometimes persist after treatment. 

Avoid late L. disease by promptly treating L. disease. 

How to Diagnosis Lyme Disease?

Healthcare providers should consider the following factors when diagnosing Lyme disease: 

History of possible exposure to ticks in areas where Lyme disease is known to occur 

Signs and symptoms suggestive of the illness  ( Test for bladder cancer detection )

Results of blood tests 

CDC recommends the use of FDA-cleared tests for Lyme disease testing.

These tests measure antibodies that the body makes against Lyme disease bacteria.

It can take several weeks after infection for the body to produce measurable levels of antibodies.

This means that patients can have a negative blood test result if tested in the first weeks after infection.

Healthcare providers should consider treating patients for Lyme disease without running a test if the patient has a history of exposure and has signs and symptoms suggestive of early Lyme disease. 

Positive Result of Lyme Disease

People who have been infected for longer than 4–6 weeks will almost always test positive.

A negative test in a patient with arthritis or other long-standing symptoms is strong evidence that Lyme disease is not the cause of their illness. 

The immune system continues to make the antibodies for months or years after the infection is gone. This means that: 

Once a patient tests positive, he or she will continue to test positive for months to years even when the bacteria are no longer present.

For people concerned about re-infection, it is difficult to distinguish between an old infection and a new infection using a blood test.

Prevention and Treatments of Lyme Disease?

People treated with antibiotics for early Lyme disease usually recover rapidly and completely.

The antibiotics most commonly used to treat Lyme disease include: doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime axetil.

Some patients may have persistent or recurrent symptoms and may require another course of antibiotics.

Where people infected by Lyme disease?

In the United States, most infections occur in the following areas: 

  • Eastern states, primarily New England and the mid-Atlantic 
  • Northern midwestern states, especially in Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Great Lakes region 
  • West Coast, particularly northern California and less commonly, Oregon and Washington
Lyme Disease Maps: Historical Data
Lyme Disease Maps: Historical Data


About Daya Shankar

I am Living in Delhi and I am a Medical Student.
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