High White blood cells (wbc count) all possible Causes

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What is White blood cells (WBCs Count)?

WBC count also called leukocytes or leucocytes are the cells of the immune system that are involved in defending the body against both infections and foreign harmful antigens. (Watch WBC video on Youtube)

Increase number of total leukocytes count more than 10,000/cu mm is known as leukocytosis.

Decrease numbers of less than 4,000/cu mm known as leuckocytopenia.

What causes of High WBC count or leukocytes?

It is common for a transient period in infections.

White Blood Cells
White Blood Cells

The degree of rise in leukocytes depend on the type and severity of the infection and the response of the body.

The infection may be.

  • bacterial
  • Viral
  • Protozoal (Malaria)
  • Parasitic (Filaria, Hookworm)
  • Leukemia (blood Cancer)

High WBC count in normal Condition?

Wbc count or TLC also increase some physiological condition.

  1. AGE: At birth the total leukocytes count is about 18,000/cu mm . Its drops gradually to adult level.
  2. Pregnancy:At full term the total count tends to be about 12,000 to 15,000/cu mm. It rises soon after delivery and than gradually returns to normal.
  3. High temperature.
  4. Severe pain.
  5. Muscular exercise.

What causes of low WBC count or leukopenia?

Certain Viral and bacterial infections (typhoid) lead to leukopenia rather than leukocytosis.

1.Infections

  • Bacterial (typhoid, Paratyphoid, Tuberculosis etc.).
  • Viral (Hepatitis, Influenza,Measles etc).
  • Protozoal (Malaria)

2. Some causes of Luekemia.

3. Primary bone marrow depression (AAplastic anemia).

4. Secondary bone marrow depression( due to drugs, radiation etc.)

5. Anemia (Iron deficiency, Megaloblastic etc).

Normal values of WBC count.

Normal values of total leukocytes count depend on patients age.

AGE Reference Range
Adults4,000-10,000/cu mm
At Birth10,000-25,000/cu mm
1 to 3 Years6,000-18,000/cu mm
4 to 7 Years6,000-15,000/cu mm
8 to 12 Years4,500-13,500/cu mm

Types of White blood cells Count (WBC) leukocytes.

There are five types white blood cells (wbcs) present in human body.

  1. Neutrophils (Polymorph)
  2. Lymphocytes
  3. Monocytes
  4. Eosinophils
  5. Basophils
Types white blood cells
Types white blood cells

White blood cells related to specific types of disorders.

Its gives ideas regarding the severity of the disease and the degree of response of the body.

1.Neutrophils (Polymorph)

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cells Neutrophils protest the body against bacterial infection

When the neutrophils count increase in the body its indicates bacterial infection.

Increase in the percentage of neutrophils is called Neutrophilia.

Normal values: 40-75%

High Neutrophils Count

Increase in the percentage of Neutrophils is called neutrophilia.

 High Neutrophils
High Neutrophils

All the the physiological and pathological causes that rise to Neutrophila.

  • Infections.
  • Pyogenic bacterial Infection
  • Stress
  • Blood cell-related cancers such as leukemia.
  • Autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Trauma and burns.
  • Smoking
  • Pregnancy. ( Duable Marker
  • Thyroiditis.

Low Neutrophils Count

Decrease in the percentage of Neutrophils Count called Netropenia.

All the the physiological and pathological causes that rise to Neutroenia.

  • Bacterial infection
  • Typhoid
  • Viral infection
  • Measles
  • Influenza
  • Aplastic Anemia
  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Suppression of bone marrow by Drugs and radiation etc.

2. Lymphocytes

Lymphocytes are a type of WBC count these produced in the Bone Marrow and Its also produced in the Lymph system.

These cells function are phagocytosis, anti body production and defend the body against foreign substances,

High Lymphocytes in blood
High Lymphocytes in blood

Such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells that can threaten its functioning.

Normal Values: 20-45%

High Lymphocytes Count

Increase number of Lymphocytes called Lymphocytosis.

Some specific causes of an increased Lymphocytes count (Lymphocytosis) include:

Low Lymphocytes Count

Low number of Lymphocytes called Lymphocytopenia.

Some specific causes of an decrease Lymphocytes count (Lymphocytopenia) include:

3. Eosinophils.

It is observed in asthma, Hypersensitivity reaction, parasitic infestations and in chronic inflammatory disease.

Their function is thought to be anti-allergic.

Normal Value:- 1-6%

High levels of Eosinophils 

Increase number of Eosinophils called Esonophilia.

  • Indicates a parasitic infection
  • allergic reaction
  • Cancer
  • inflammation
  • Asthma,
  • Hypersensitivity reaction
  • Chronic inflammatory disease

Low Level of Eosinophils Count 

  • Intoxication from alcohol
  • Excessive production of cortisol
  • Cushing’s disease Etc.

4. Monocytes

Monocytes are a type of white blood cells its produced in the bone morrow.

Their function is phagocytosis (engulfing) and they digest the damaged tissues.

Normal Value of Monocytes:- 2-8%

High Level of Monocytes

Some specific causes of an increased Monocytes in blood.

  • Chronic inflammatory disease.
  • Malaria
  • Typhoid
  • Leukemia.
  • Parasitic infection.
  • Tuberculosis, or TB (bacterial infection that involves the lungs)
  • Viral infection
  • Mumps
  • Measles etc.

Low levels of Monocytes

low number of monocytes in the blood (monocytopenia) can be caused by anything that decreases the overall white blood cell count.

  • Bloodstream infection
  • Chemotherapy
  • Bone marrow disorder.

5. Basophils

It is observed in Chronic Myeloid Luekemia.

Normal level of Basophils: 0-1%

High level of Basophils Count.

Basophils are a type of white blood cells. Increase basophil level is called basophilia

  • Chronic inflammation
  • Chronic Myeloid Luekemia.

Low levels of Basophils.

If your basophil level is low, it may be due to a severe allergic reaction.

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